地球物理学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 2577-2584.doi: 10.6038/j.issn.1004-2903.2012.06.035

• 应用地球物理 • 上一篇    下一篇

折射波静校正与层析静校正技术适用性分析

于豪   

  1. 中国石油勘探开发研究院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-20 修回日期:2012-06-11 出版日期:2012-12-20 发布日期:2012-12-20
  • 作者简介:于豪,男,1984年生,山东威海人,中国石油勘探开发研究院博士研究生,现从事地震资料处理方法研究及解释工作.(E-mail:yuhpana@163.com)

Applicability analysis of refraction static correction and tomographic inversion static correction

YU Hao   

  1. Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2012-02-20 Revised:2012-06-11 Online:2012-12-20 Published:2012-12-20

摘要: 对于任何一种类型的油气藏,构造都是十分重要的主控因素,而构造因素的影响往往与地震资料处理中的静校正密切相关,因此,长波长静校正问题越来越多地引起人们的关注.折射波静校正与层析静校正是目前资料处理中常用的静校正技术.前者适合近地表有稳定的折射层、表层速度和厚度纵横向变化不太剧烈的地区,并要预先给出风化层的速度;但是不能反映层内速度变化,不适合风化层速度变化剧烈或存在速度反转的地区.后者在算法上比前者复杂许多,适合地形起伏较大、近地表结构复杂、速度变化剧烈的地区,能够解决因速度横向剧烈变化和速度倒转引起的静校正问题;但是计算量大,计算时间长,存在多解性.日常工作中往往会认为层析静校正一定比折射波静校正效果好,其实不然.本文在归纳了这两种方法适用条件和优缺点的基础上,结合低山区和黄土塬区两种典型地表结构的实际资料进行了静校正处理.从模型和剖面对比上可以证明,并不是算法越复杂处理效果就越好,只有在满足算法适用条件的前提下才能充分体现技术优势.

Abstract: Structure is an important controlling factor for any type of reservoirs, which is closely related to static correction of seismic data processing. So people are increasingly concerned about the long-wavelength static correction. Refraction static correction and tomographic inversion static correction are commonly used in seismic data processing. Refraction static correction requires stable refraction layers in the near-surface areas, the speed and thickness both in vertical and horizontal couldn't change severely, and weathering velocity should be given first. But it cannot reflect the change of velocity in layers, and it is inapplicable to the areas where weathering velocity changes severely or there is speed ??reversal. Tomographic inversion static correction is more complicated than refraction static correction in algorithm, which is applicable to the areas where weathering velocity changes severely or there is large surface relief. It can solve the problems that there is speed reversal and the speed and thickness both in vertical and horizontal change severely. But it may result in large computation, long time and multiple solutions. People often believe that the effect of tomographic inversion static correction is better than the effect of refraction static correction. It is not true. This paper has summarized applicable conditions, advantages and disadvantages of these two methods, and got satisfactory results based on actual data of low mountains and loess tableland areas. In low mountains areas, the effect of tomographic inversion static correction is better than the effect of refraction static correction because weathering velocity changes severely and there is large surface relief. However, in loess tableland areas, the effect of refraction static correction is almost the same as the effect of tomographic inversion static correction. It can’t reflect the advantages of tomographic inversion static correction because the loess is thick, weathering velocity is stable and first arrival is clear in loess tableland areas. All of the above is proved from models and sections in this paper. So each technique must meet its applicable conditions to reflect its superiorities. Integrated application of static correction methods is effective to solve the complex surface static correction problems.

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