地球物理学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (4): 1507-1514.doi: 10.6038/pg2018BB0311

• 应用地球物理学Ⅰ(油气及金属矿产地球物理勘探) • 上一篇    下一篇

断层识别方法综述及研究进展

李婷婷1,侯思宇1,马世忠1,李东亮2   

  1. 1. 东北石油大学地球科学学院,黑龙江大庆 163318
    2. 大庆榆树林油田开发有限责任公司,黑龙江大庆 163318;
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-29 修回日期:2018-06-06 出版日期:2018-08-20 发布日期:2018-09-13
  • 作者简介:李婷婷,女,1979年生,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,主要从事地震资料解释及储层预测研究.(E-mail: 51763570@qq.com)
  • 基金资助:
    国家重大科技专项资助(2016zx05025-001-002)

Overview and research progress of fault identification method

LI Ting-ting1,HOU Si-yu1,MA Shi-zhong1,LI Dong-liang2   

  1. 1. School of Earth Sciences, Northeast Petroleum University, Heilongjiang Daqing 163318, China
    2. Yushulin Oilfield Company Limited, Heilongjiang Daqing 163318, China
  • Received:2017-09-29 Revised:2018-06-06 Online:2018-08-20 Published:2018-09-13

摘要:

断层解释是地震资料解释的基础与关键,准确合理的断层识别关系到构造图的精度,同时控制着油田的注采关系,对油气开采起着至关重要的作用.随着油田对断层解释精度需求的日益提高,单纯通过人工解释难以达到较高的精度,因此多种断层识别和解释方法应运而生.本文调研国内外大量相关文献,对多种断层识别方法进行分类和总结,并将常用的断层识别技术划分为四类,即:常规识别方法、地震属性识别方法、自动追踪解释方法和图像处理识别方法.重点介绍了目前应用较为广泛的断层识别方法,如相干体技术、曲率属性识别技术、方差体技术、蚂蚁追踪技术以及边缘检测技术.对每种方法的基础原理、发展历程、适用性、优缺点及实际应用效果进行了归纳总结,为其他学者进行断层识别方法研究提供参考.最后对断层识别技术未来的发展趋势做了几点展望:寻找新的对断层具有明显响应的地震属性;针对不同岩性,不同沉积环境下断层识别技术的应用;基于叠前地震数据的断层识别方法.

关键词: 断层识别, 相干体技术, 曲率属性, 蚂蚁追踪, 边缘检测

Abstract:

Fault interpretation is the foundation and key of seismic data interpretation, which plays a very important role in seismic data interpretation. Accurate and reasonable fault identification is very important for oil and gas exploitation related to the accuracy of the seismic structure map what’s more controls the oilfield injection-production relationship at the same time. At present, with the oil field’s ever-increasing demand of fault interpretation accuracy, it is very difficult to achieve high fault interpretation accuracy by artificial fault identification. For this reason, a variety of fault identification and interpretation methods are born. In this paper, a variety of fault identification methods are classified and summarized by investigating a large number of fault identification literatures at home and abroad, and divide common fault identification techniques into four categories: conventional artificial recognition methods,seismic attribute identification method, automatic tracking interpretation method and image processing recognition method, respectively. This paper emphatically introduced the fault identification methods which have been widely applied at present, such as coherence technique, curvature attribute identify technique, variance cube technique, ant tracking technique and edge detection technique based on image processing technology. This paper summarizes the basic principles, development history, applicability, advantages and disadvantages and actual application results for each of the mentioned methods above, provides a reference for other scholars to carry on fault identification methods research. In the end, the paper makes three predictions about the future development trend of fault identification technology: To find new seismic attributes that have obvious response to faults, The application of different faults identification techniques in different sedimentary environments and different lithologies, Faults identification method based on pre-stack seismic data.

Key words: fault identification, coherence technology, curvature attribute, ant-tracking, edge detection

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