地球物理学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 2113-2125.doi: 10.6038/pg2018CC0154

• 应用地球物理学Ⅱ(海洋、工程、环境、仪器等) • 上一篇    下一篇

海底羽状流探测方法分析

韩同刚1(),童思友1,陈江欣2,3,*(),徐华宁2,3,杨力4,王忠成1   

  1. 1. 海底科学与探测技术教育部重点实验室,中国海洋大学,山东青岛 266100
    2. 自然资源部天然气水合物重点实验室,青岛海洋地质研究所,山东青岛 266071
    3. 海洋国家实验室海洋矿产资源评价与探测技术功能实验室,山东青岛 266071
    4. 自然资源部海底矿产资源重点实验室,广州海洋地质调查局,广州 510760
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-13 修回日期:2018-08-15 出版日期:2018-10-20 发布日期:2019-01-11
  • 通讯作者: 陈江欣 E-mail:hantonggang@sina.com;jiangxin_chen@sina.com
  • 作者简介:韩同刚,男,1993年生,山东潍坊人,中国海洋大学硕士研究生,主要从事海洋地球物理学研究.
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41606077);国家自然科学基金(41230318);国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0307400)

Analysis of detection methods for submarine plume

HAN Tong-gang1(),TONG Si-you1,CHEN Jiang-xin2,3,*(),XU Hua-ning2,3,YANG Li4,WANG Zhong-cheng1   

  1. 1. Key Lab of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Techniques, MOE, Ocean University of China, Shangdong Qingdao 266100, China
    2. The Key Laboratory of Gas Hydrate, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Shangdong Qingdao 266071, China
    3. Laboratory for Marine Mineral Resources, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Shangdong Qingdao 266071, China
    4. Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources, Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou 510760, China
  • Received:2018-04-13 Revised:2018-08-15 Online:2018-10-20 Published:2019-01-11
  • Contact: Jiang-xin CHEN E-mail:hantonggang@sina.com;jiangxin_chen@sina.com

摘要:

海底热液活动区域广泛分布多金属结核等矿产资源,冷泉活动区域赋存丰富的天然气水合物和海洋油气资源,同时它们对于海洋生物多样性、全球气候变化、海底构造与流体地质研究具有重要意义.海底羽状流是活动热液和冷泉的重要指示标志,是进行海底原位研究的直接场所,通过探测海底羽状流来寻找海底热液和冷泉的活动区域显得尤为重要.系统梳理并总结了海底羽状流在不同探测方法的表现形态特征和不同探测方法的适用性以及局限性,为以后进行海底羽状流探测采取合适的探测方法指明了方向.条件允许的情况下应采用综合探测方法,优势互补进行海底羽状流的探测与解译,可进一步提高探测正确性和准确性,减少解释误判.声学方法能够为进一步海底羽状流属性特征研究提供有效方法,同时指出海底羽状流探测研究的相关方向.

关键词: 天然气水合物, 油气勘探, 冷泉羽状流, 热液羽状流, 流体喷溢

Abstract:

Mineral resources such as poly-metallic nodules are widely distributed in submarine hydrothermal activity areas and cold seep activity areas are rich in gas hydrates and marine oil and gas resources, which are of great significance for the research on the marine biodiversity, global climate change, seabed tectonics and fluid geology. As an important indicator of active hydrothermal and cold seep, the submarine plume is a direct site for seafloor in-situ research. It is particularly of great importance to find the activity areas of submarine hydrothermal and cold seeps by detecting submarine plume.

The gas or fluids which seep from the shallow or deep layer to seawater not only changed the physical property of the submarine sedimentary strata but also changed the topography and geomorphology of the seafloor and increased the degree of roughness of the seafloor since the gas seepage and relevant products (such as the methane derived authigenic carbonate, pockmark and mud volcano and others) could cause the seafloor sediments to redistribute. The drastic submarine gas or fluid venting will also form submarine cold seep plume in the overlying water column. Therefore, it is accessible to use sonar, multibeam bathymetry data and seismic exploration and other acoustic methods to detect the submarine plumes according to various acoustic responses. During the process of rising and diffusion of submarine hydrothermal plume, it will exchange material with the surrounding water column, and physics, optics and chemistry and other gradient of parameter and constituent will change. It is the main route to understand submarine hydrothermal plume and its scope of distribution to detect the change of those gradients. The prominent presentation of submarine hydrothermal activity is the eruption of high temperature fluid from the seafloor. Therefore, high heat flow anomaly often happens on the seafloor. And it will result in anomaly of overlying water column and the special submarine topography and geomorphology will form. Since the difference between the physical and chemical properties of submarine hydrothermal plume and surrounding seawater is obvious and various kinds of anomalies exist,it is accessible to detect submarine hydrothermal plume and confirm its scope of distribution with modern investigation technology equipment.

The morphological characteristics of submarine plume in different detection methods and the applicability and limitation of different detection methods are summarized. The suitable detection method for submarine plume detection are discussed. If the conditions permit, the cross-disciplinary detection methods with complementary advantages shall be used for the detection and interpretation of submarine plumes, which can improve the correctness and accuracy of the detection and reduce misinterpretation. The acoustic method can provide an effective method for further research on attribute characteristics of submarine plumes. In addition, the relevant direction of detection research for submarine plume is discussed.

Key words: gas hydrate, oil and gas exploration, cold seep plume, hydrothermal plume, fluid venting

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