地球物理学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (3): 1139-1144.doi: 10.6038/pg2019CC0273

• 应用地球物理学Ⅰ(油气及金属矿产地球物理勘探) • 上一篇    下一篇

地震数据低频信号保护与拓频方法研究

张彬彬1,张军华2,吴永亭1   

  1. 1. 自然资源部第一海洋研究所,山东青岛 266061
    2. 中国石油大学(华东)地球科学与技术学院,山东青岛 266580
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-11 修回日期:2019-04-24 出版日期:2019-06-20 发布日期:2019-07-09
  • 作者简介:张彬彬,男,1990年生,山东无棣人,硕士,助理工程师,主要从事地震资料处理及海洋地球物理研究.(E-mail: zhangbinbin@fio.org.cn)
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41604046)

Research on protection and extension for seismic low frequencies

ZHANG Bin-bin1,ZHANG Jun-hua2,WU Yong-ting1   

  1. 1. First Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Shandong Qingdao 266061, China
    2. School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Shandong Qingdao 266580, China
  • Received:2018-07-11 Revised:2019-04-24 Online:2019-06-20 Published:2019-07-09

摘要:

地震数据低频信号在地震勘探中有重要意义,低频信号能够提高分辨率与成像精度、改善反演质量,甚至用于油气检测,需对其进行有效保护与拓展.本文从地震数据中已存在低频的保护和缺失低频的拓展两方面出发,提出了基于图像特征转换的SVD自适应面波减去方法和基于压缩感知理论的低频拓展方法.经理论分析及实际资料验证,基于图像特征转换的SVD自适应面波减去方法能在降低对数据中低频信号损伤情况下有效压制面波,实现对有效低频信号的保护;基于压缩感知理论的低频拓展方法能够对损失掉的低频信号进行有效拓展,提高地震数据品质.在地震资料处理过程中应用低频信号的保护与拓展方法,能够为后续的全波形反演、叠前反演及精细解释工作提供包含丰富低频信号的数据体.

关键词: 低频信号, 面波衰减, 径向道变换, 奇异值分解, 低频拓展, 压缩感知

Abstract:

Seismic low frequencies are of great significance in seismic exploration. It can improve resolution and accuracy, improve inversion quality, and even be used for oil and gas detection. Thus, the low-frequency signal needs to be protected and extended effectively. It starts from two aspects including the protection of low-frequency components existed in the seismic data and the extension of the low-frequency components. We propose an Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) adaptive surface wave subtraction method based on image feature conversion and an extension method based on compressed sensing theory. Through applying the methods on field data, the SVD adaptive surface wave subtraction method based on image feature conversion not only eliminates the surface wave effectively, but also protects the low-frequency information of seismic data. The extension method based on Compressed sensing theory extends the low-frequency information missed in the seismic acquisition. The application of low-frequency signal protection and extension method in seismic data processing can provide data volume with rich low-frequency information for the full wave inversion, pre-stack inversion and detailed interpretation work.

Key words: Low-frequency, Attenuation of surface wave, Radial trace transform, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Extension for low frequencies, Compressed sensing

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