地球物理学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (6): 2283-2300.doi: 10.6038/pg2019CC0290

• 应用地球物理学Ⅰ(油气及金属矿产地球物理勘探) • 上一篇    下一篇

储层裂缝综合表征与预测研究进展

刘敬寿1, 2, 3, 丁文龙1, 2, 3, *, 肖子亢1, 戴俊生4   

  1. 1. 中国地质大学(北京)能源学院,北京 100083;
    2. 中国地质大学(北京)海相储层演化与油气富集机理教育部重点实验室,北京 100083;
    3. 中国地质大学(北京)页岩气资源战略评价国土资源部重点实验室,北京 100083;
    4. 中国石油大学(华东)地球科学与技术学院,青岛 266580
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-21 修回日期:2019-08-14 出版日期:2019-12-20 发布日期:2019-12-29
  • 通讯作者: 丁文龙,男,1965年生,教授,博士生导师,主要从事石油构造分析与控油气作用、非常规油气构造和裂缝及其与含气性关系研究等方面的教学与科研工作.(E-mail:dingwenlong2006@126.com)
  • 作者简介:刘敬寿,男,1989年生,博士研究生,研究方向为石油构造分析、非常规油气储层裂缝形成机制与定量表征及工程甜点评价预测.(E-mail:liujingshou@126.com)
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(41372139,41072098); 国家科技重大专项专题(2016ZX05046-003-001,2016ZX05034-004-003)联合资助.

Advances in comprehensive characterization and prediction of reservoir fractures

LIU Jing-shou1, 2, 3, DING Wen-long1, 2, 3, *, XIAO Zi-kang1, DAI Jun-sheng4   

  1. 1. School of Energy Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China;
    2. Key Laboratory for Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Abundance Mechanism,Ministry of Education,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China;
    3. Key Laboratory for Shale Gas Exploitation and Assessment,Ministry of Land and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China;
    4. School of Geosciences,China University of Petroleum,Qingdao 266580,China
  • Received:2019-02-21 Revised:2019-08-14 Online:2019-12-20 Published:2019-12-29

摘要: 裂缝性油气藏在世界石油和天然气的产量、储量中均占有十分重要的地位.天然裂缝一方面可以显著改善储层的渗透性,甚至可以为油气聚集提供一定的储集空间,另一方面对储层的压裂改造和石油工程方案优化设计有重要影响.通过调研储层裂缝近年来的研究热点,总结了储层裂缝表征方法、表征参数以及预测方法的研究进展,分析了储层裂缝的主控因素,最后讨论了储层裂缝研究中面临的实际问题.目前,裂缝识别与表征方法主要包括地质与岩石学法、测井方法、钻井与录井以及生产动态资料分析法.伴随着非常规油气开发,裂缝的充填特征、连通性、有效性、开启压力、封闭性、动态参数以及裂缝面粗糙度等参数日益得到研究人员的关注.在裂缝预测方法中地震法、应力场数值模拟法是目前主流的裂缝反演、正演预测方法.通过鄂尔多斯盆地周缘野外地质考察,将裂缝与结构面组合样式分为终止型、穿透型、变换型以及复合型四大类.提高测井与地震识别、预测裂缝的精度,建立精细的有限元地质力学模型以及准确预测油藏裂缝开度是目前储层裂缝表征、预测的瓶颈制约.

关键词: 储层裂缝, 综合表征, 预测方法, 裂缝参数, 影响因素, 储层地质力学建模, 裂缝开度

Abstract: Fractured oil and gas reservoirs occupy an important position in world's oil and gas output and reserves. On the one hand, natural fractures can significantly improve the reservoir permeability, they can even provide some storage space for oil and gas accumulation. On the other hand, they are important effects of reservoir fracturing and petroleum engineering project design and optimization. Through investigating the hotspot of reservoir fracture research in recent years, this article summarized the research progress of reservoir fracture characterization method, the characterization parameters and the prediction method, and it analyzed the main control factors of reservoir fractures. Finally it discussed the practical problems in the process of reservoir fractures research. Fracture identification and characterization methods mainly include geology and petrology, logging, drilling and logging, and the method of the production dynamic data analysis at present. With unconventional oil and gas development, researchers are increasingly concerned about the parameters of fracture filling, connection, effectivity, opening pressure, closure, dynamic parameters, and the fracture surface roughness. Seismic wave method and the numerical simulation of stress field are the current mainstream prediction methods of fracture inversion and forward progress. On the basis of the field geology investigation around the Ordos basin, the combination styles of fracture and structural plane were divided into termination, penetration, transformation and compound type. How to improve the accuracy of fracture identification and prediction by logging and seismic method, how to build the refined geomechanical model using the finite element method and how to accurately predict reservoir fracture aperture are the bottleneck restricts of reservoir fracture characterization and prediction.

Key words: Reservoir fractures, Comprehensive characterization, Prediction method, Fracture parameters, Influence factor, Reservoir geomechanical modeling, Fracture aperture

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